Methodological Scheme Of The Studies Of The Program Sustainable Cities
The methodological process adopted for the preparation of the PCS studies is based on the following three (03) stages: See Chart N° 1.First Stage: Organization and Study Preparation
It consists of collecting and reviewing the existing information about the city under study, and its regional context, preparation of the operational instruments for the fieldwork and the study development, gathering and recognition of the preliminary information.Second Stage: Formulation of the Situational Diagnosis
It has four main components:
- Hazard Evaluation. - Identify the dangers of natural and technological origin that could have impact on the city and its immediate surroundings, engaging within this concept all "those harmful elements of the environment or physical environment to men and caused by forces outside them, "and also the technological origin hazards, this is to say those caused by human activities. The correspondents Maps Synthesis of Hazard are obtained. See Chart Nº 2 and Chart Nº 3.
- Vulnerability Evaluation. - Allows determining the damage and loss degree that could result from the occurrence of an adverse event or a natural hazard in the city. We get the map of vulnerability of the city, which identify the areas of Very High, High, Medium and Low Vulnerability, depending on the type of phenomenon evaluated. This evaluation takes place in the busy city area, analyzing different types of variables to determine the most vulnerable areas See Chart Nº 4:
Human Settlements: analysis of the spatial distribution of population (density), occupation typology, housing characteristics, materials, construction status, etc. Services and Vital Lines: most important facilities of the drinking water systems, sewage, electricity, road system, transport and communications and emergency services like hospitals, fire stations and police stations. Places of Public Concentration, evaluation of schools, churches, theaters, public markets, stadiums, universities, museums and other facilities where there is a significant concentration of people at any given time. We analyze the degree of impact and damage that could occur before the occurrence of a natural disaster and emergency. Monumental Patrimony: evaluation of properties, archaeological sites and buildings of architectural interest that are the heritage of the city. Supporting Infrastructure: Evaluation of the support infrastructure that allows the development of economic activities.
- Risk Estimation. - Corresponds to the evaluation of the hazards that menace the city and the vulnerability to them. The Risk analysis is an estimate of the probability of expected loss for a given natural event (see Chart Nº 5). Thus we have:The identification of the Critical Areas as a result of the evaluation helps to structure the Plan proposal, establishing criteria for projects prioritizing and concrete actions aimed at mitigating the effects of the natural phenomena see Chart Nº 6.d. Summary of Current Situation. – It is developed based on the conditions of hazards, vulnerability and risk, envisioning a scenario of likely occurrence if there is not action taken timely and appropriately.
- Third Stage: Formulation of the Proposal About the conception of the Target image of the city from the point of view of the physical safety and attention to trends, risk scenarios, growth and development possibilities, the proposal is made up of three main components: The Use Disaster Soil Plan in case of Disasters due to General Condition of Use, Technical Guidelines for construction and equipping and Project Identification of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation.